英语写作三种主题句例句,写作加油站:主题句写作修炼指南

最后更新 : 2021.05.14  

很多同学都觉得写作很难,难得无从下笔英语写作三种主题句例句。这就是问题的关键。要想要下笔写一篇作文,首先映入眼帘的就是首句的写作了,只有当我们写好了首句,后面的内容才可以围绕着首句进行展开,希望大家一定要仔细阅读今天的推送内容,掌握写作首句“主题句”的三大要点,再辅以联系,那一定会大有长进~

英语写作三种主题句例句,写作加油站:主题句写作修炼指南

前言

英语写作三种主题句例句,写作加油站:主题句写作修炼指南

一句标准的主题句包括哪些内容

主题句(topic sentence)是表达段落主题的句子。它用以概括段落大意,要求全段其他文字都围绕它展开。请看下例:

My mother has passed along to me certain rules for getting along with others. Don\’t argue with parents; they will think you don\’t love them. Don\’t argue with children; they will think themselves victimized. Don\’t argue with spouses; they will think you are a tiresome mate. Don\’t argue with strangers; they will think you are not friendly. My mother\’s rules, in fact, can be summed up in two words: Don\’t argue.

主题句中提出的\”certain rules\”指的是什么?展开句中通过四个\”Don\’t argue –\” 逐一加以交代。从结构来看,这是一个比较典型的段落,它包括了主题句,推展句和结论句(即本段中的末句)。

1

主题句位置在哪里?

主题句通常放在段落的开端,其特点是开门见山地摆出问题,然后加以详细说明。其作用是使文章的结构更清晰,更具说服力,便于读者迅速地把握主题和想象全段的内容。主题句可以放在段中起到承上启下的作用,或放在段尾起概括全段的作用。但初学者比较难于掌握,我们应尽量采用将主题句放在段落开头的写作手法。

例1: Our life today depends very much on energy. In towns and in villages, on farms and in factories, machines have made life easier than it used to be. The machines use energy, and energy is needed for heating, lighting, communications, carrying goods — everything. Factories and industrial plants use a great deal of energy to make the things that we use and buy and sell.

这段文字所讲的主要是能源问题。第一句就概括性地提出“我们目前的生活很大程度上依赖于能源”。而随后出现的三句都是具体事例,对第一句进行说明和论述。我们可以断定第一句为该段的主题句(斜体部分)。

2

重中之重:关键词

段落的主题句对主题的限定主要是通过句中的关键词来表现的。关键词要尽量写得具体些。对“具体”的要求包括两个方面:一是要具体到能控制和限制段落的发展;二是要具体到能说明段落发展的方法。准确地把握关键词是清楚地表达段落主题、写好段落主题句的重要前提之一。在上面的例1中,主题句的关键词为:depends very much on energy. 我们再看下列例句:

原句1: He can fix a bicycle himself.

斜体部分应为主题句中的关键词。但它只是限制了段落发展的部分内容,并没有告诉读者该用哪种方法展开,是用因果关系法还是用分类法?

修正:He can fix a bicycle himself in several simple steps. 的修正:There are several reasons why he can fix a bicycle himself.

原句2: She tries to improve her looks.

斜体部分应为主题句中的关键词。她试着改变她面容的理由是什么?或者她采取什么方法来改善呢?我们无法从关键词中清楚得知。

修正:She tries many ways to improve her looks. 的修正:There are some reasons why she tries to improve her looks。

3

点睛之笔:中心思想

主题句由两部分组成,即主题(topic)和中心思想(controlling idea)。中心思想的作用是导向(control)和制约(limit)。我们前面谈到的关键词就反映了中心思想。所谓导向就是规定段落的发展脉络,所谓制约就是限制主题的覆盖范围,两者不可分割。没有导向,内容就会离题或偏题;没有制约,内容就可能超出一个段落所能容纳的范围。

对于初学写作的人来说,“导向”的重要性容易理解,但如果由他们自己来构思一个主题句,就可能忽视“制约”这一面。例如:

There are two ways in which one can own a book. The first is the property right you establish by paying for it, just as you have made it a part of yourself and the best way to make yourself a part of it is by writing in it.

本段的主题句如果没有in which 引出的定语从句,那么two ways 不仅不能起制约作用,而且也不能起导向作用,句子本身读起来也就使人觉得欠缺点什么。

Exercise is beneficial to your heart. A 22-year study was conducted by doctors in California. They found that people who work at physical jobs experience fewer heart attacks than other people. These active people work all the time at moderate speeds, their daily routine gives them an adequate amount of exercise and helps them stay in shape.

\”Exercise is beneficial\”这是毫无疑义的。但主题句中如不加上\”to your heart\”来加以control和limit,那就流于空泛。

因此,紧紧把握主题句中controlling idea的导向和制约作用,是短文写作成功关键之一。

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