写作中的段落对比,写作技巧方法:层次与段落

最后更新 : 2021.06.09  

层次和段落是文章结构的具体体现。一篇文章的结构好不好,主要看层次是否清楚,段落是否分明写作中的段落对比;层次间、段落间是否有其内在的逻辑联系,层次与段落的地位和顺序是否安排得当。离开层次与段落的具体安排,结构也就是空的。

写作中的段落对比,写作技巧方法:层次与段落

客观事物的发生、发展和结束的过程,是决定文章层次、段落的客观基础。文章必须根据客观事物发展的阶段性决定自己的层次和段落。同时,一篇文章的主题是不可能一下就表达清楚的,必须一层一层地说。哪一层意思先说,哪一层意思后说,都有一个次序和位置的安排问题,这种安排就是层次。一个层次,也不可能一下就说清楚,也必须分段来加以说明或叙述,这就产生了段落。段落是文章最基本的结构形式。

层次与段落,既然是客观事物发展的阶段性的反映,是为表现主题服务的,因此,层次的位置、段落的长短必须符合客观事物发展的规律性,必须充分地反映主题的需要。层次混乱,无逻辑联系,必然造成整篇文章结构上的絮乱;段落不清或分段不当,也不能有力地表达主题;段落过长,容易显得累赘板滞;段落过短,又会显得支离破碎。

那么,怎样才能安排好层次与段落呢?最根本的是要对客观事物进行深入细致的调查研究,认识事物的本质,掌握事物发展过程的内部联系。然后,根据表现主题的需要,确定论点与题材在文章中的地位,看哪些论点与题材应该先写,哪些论点与题材应该后写,根据论点与题材在文章中的地位和作用,安排其位置和顺序。只有经过一番分析研究的工夫,才能正确地划分层次与段落。一般地说,评论文往往按思想发展的过程,即提出问题、分析问题、解决问题的顺序来划分层次段落。而记叙文往往按事件情节的发展过程来划分段落层次。

在记叙文《郎家坡》(《献给发光的年代》上海人民出版社出版)中,段落层次也是比较分明的。全文共分二十一段。从第一段到第三段,写“我”冒雨乘汽车到方家梁去看望方秋生(文中要歌颂的主要先进人物)。其中的写景,是为主要人物的出场渲染气氛,作为铺垫。——这是第一个层次。第四段到第七段,写“我”在郎家坡遇见了方秋生,接着用一段插叙交代方秋生以前在部队的表现,以显示这一先进人物扎根深山的思想基础,并为下文他带病工作埋下伏笔。——这是第二个层次。第八段到第十九段,写方秋生艰苦奋斗的动人事迹:一、垒堰,二、护竹,三、找水。作者集中笔力刻画方秋生带病坚持工作的高大形象和崇高的精神境界:以老红军为榜样,为中国人民争气,一不怕苦、二不怕死,立志为山区建设贡献自己的一切。——这是本文的重点,也是第三个层次。第二十段和第二十一段,与开头呼应,用抒情的笔触,归结全文,再一次赞扬了方秋生一心为革命、一切为人民战士的崇高品质。——这是第四个层次。四个层次一环扣一环,紧相衔接,使全文结构显得非常清晰、紧凑。

未完待续……

大家都在看

文学小说《趟过男人河的女人》全本整理汇总

上个世纪八九十年代小学语文教材回忆汇总

全本《写作技巧方法》整理汇总

全本小说《黎明的河边》整理汇总

这儿是文学与历史爱好者的聚集地。这有小说和散文,还有诗词,更有中华传统文化和写作技巧方法……关注起来,一起读书养性,方可脱胎换骨。

「CET-4写作」组段之比较法

写作中的段落对比,写作技巧方法:层次与段落

写作中的段落对比,写作技巧方法:层次与段落

⑧比较法(development by comparison)

为了帮助人们对一个不太熟悉的事物获得一个清晰的认识,我们常常可以拿一个人们比较熟悉的事物来放在一起进行对照,找出这两个事物之间的相同点或相似性,这就是比较。运用比较法进行写作是一种常见的段落拓展方法。在运用比较法写作时,我们通常可以有两种模式:平行比较(parallel comparison)和完全比较(compelete comparison)。平行比较,就是以事物的相似点为线索,同时对双方进行一点一点地对应比较,其具体模式为:A1,B1;A2,B2;A3,B3……而完全比较,就是以事物本身为线索,先对一个事物的各方面进行全面叙述,再把另一事物的各方面与该事物相对应地进行全面叙述,其具体模式为A1,A2,A3……;B1,B2,B3……。具体说明如下:

Thesis: X is a better school than Y

平行比较模式:

1. Student body

A. X

B. Y

2. Teaching staff

A. X

B. Y

3. Library and other facilities

A. X

B. Y

4. Campus

A. X

B. Y

完全比较模式:

1. X

A. Student body

B. Teaching staff

C. Library and other facilities

D. Campus

2. Y

A. Student body

B. Teaching staff

C. Library and other facilities

D. Campus

我们看一看下面的具体例子:

Titan and Titanic

In 1898, a struggling author named Morgan Robertson concocted a novel about a fabulous Atlantic liner, far larger than any that had ever been built. Robertson loaded his ship with rich and complacent people and then wrecked it one cold April night on an iceberg. This somehow showed the futility of everything, and, in fact, the book was called Futility when it appeared that year, published by the firm of M. F. Mansfield.

Fourteen years later, a British shipping company named the White Star Line built a steamer remarkably like the one in Robertson’s novel. The new liner was 66,000 tons displacement; Robertson’s was 70,000 tons. The real ship was 882.5 feet long; the fictional one was 800 feet. Both vessels were triple screw and could make 24-25 knots. Both could carry about 3,000 people, and both had enough lifeboats for only a fraction of this number. But then, this didn’t seem to matter because both were labeled “unsinkable.”

On April 10, 1912, the real ship left South Hampton on her maiden voyage to New York. Her cargo included a priceless copy of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam and a list of passengers collectively worth $ 250 million. On her way she too hit an iceberg and went down on a cold April night.

Robertson called his ship the Titan; the White Star Line called its ship the Titanic. This is the story of her last night.

这篇作文是一个扩展的平行比较结构,其目的是将小说中虚构的船只失事与生活中现实的船只失事相比较。

Eating and Reading

As a creature, I eat; and as a man, I read. Although one action is to meet the primary need of my body and the other is to satisfy the intellectual need of my mind, they are in a way quite similar.

To keep ourselves alive, we need all kinds of nutrition. Eating is the most important way by which we can get starch, protein, vitamin, sugar, fat, and trace elements. On the other hand, we eat not only because we have to do so, but also because we enjoy doing so. Having satisfied our hunger, eating can then be a kind of enjoyment. The color, the smell and the taste of the food are considered as important as its nutritive value. Very often we eat some food not because it is nourishing but simply because we like it. This partiality for certain food will not affect our health, so long as we do not indulge in it. There are many people, however, who do not eat the food they dislike and consequently suffer from malnutrition. So, for the sake of our health, we have to eat some food even though we may not like it.

Similarly, to enrich our minds, we need information and knowledge, which can be obtained through reading. Reading is one of the most important ways of learning. Without reading, our minds will become empty like that of an animal. Sometimes, we take reading as a pastime, and we relax and learn at the same time. Since recreation is involved, we will naturally have a partiality for some particular kinds of books, just as we do for certain kind of food. It is all right if we read more books on history than books on literature. But suppose we focus on one subject only and pay no attention to anything else, we will face the problem of imbalance. Nutrition for our minds should be as comprehensive as the nutrition for our bodies. An educated person is one who knows a lot of things about something and something about a lot of things. One’s mind needs all kinds of nourishment, whether they are to one’s liking or not.

Besides, there are other similarities between eating and reading. We should not eat too much without digesting and assimilating, nor should we read too much without understanding and remembering. While we are eating, we should leave out the rotten part of the food which will do harm to our health; and while we are reading, we should be able to reject the poisonous content in a book, if any, for it will poison our minds.

So, eat sensibly and read sensibly to give yourself a strong body and a healthy mind.

这是一个完全比较(含部分平行比较)的例子。第一段统领全文,指出eating 和reading两者之间在某种程度上很相似。在第二段,作者首先对eating 各方面的特征和作用进行逐一分析;在第三段,作者再对应地把reading各方面的特征和作用进行逐一分析。第四段再采用平行比较的手法。最后一段是作者自己的总结。

资料来源:李华田主编《四级写作》,新大学英语四、六级考点透视丛书/李华田主编,武汉大学出版社,2006

相关阅读

- END -

14
0